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References

1. Introduction

Climate Change Authority Act 2011 (Cth).

Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative) Act 2011 (Cth).

Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative) Regulations 2011 (Cth).

Climate Change Authority 2014, Targets and Progress Review, Melbourne.

ClimateWorks 2010, Low Carbon Growth Plan, ClimateWorks Australia, Melbourne.

ClimateWorks 2013, Tracking Progress Towards a Low Carbon Economy, Melbourne.

Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE) 2012, The Carbon Farming Initiative Handbook, Canberra.

Department of Environment (DOE) 2013, Emissions Reduction Fund Green Paper, Canberra.

Treasury and Department of Industry, Innovation, Climate Change, Science, Research and Tertiary Education (DIICCSRTE) 2013, Climate Change Mitigation Scenarios, modelling report to the Climate Change Authority in support of its Caps and Targets Review, Canberra.

2. Key characteristics of baseline and credit schemes

Greenhouse Gas Benchmark Rule (Generation) No. 2 of 2003 (NSW).

Energy Savings Scheme (ESS), Projects and equipment, viewed 4 March 2014, www.ess.nsw.gov.au/Home

3. Coverage

Australian Government 2013, Carbon Farming Initiative: The first 18 months, Fact Sheet, viewed 11 March 2014, www.climatechange.gov.au/sites/climatechange/files/documents/07_2013/cfi-the-first-18-months.pdf

The Australia Institute 2008, Agriculture and Emissions Trading, The impossible dream? Saddler and King Canberra.

Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Science (ABARES) 2011, The economics of Australian agriculture’s participation in carbon-offset markets, Canberra.

Clean Energy Regulator (CER) 2014, Register of Offset Projects 2014, viewed 28 February 2014, www.cleanenergyregulator.gov.au/Carbon-Farming-Initiative/Register-of-Offsets-Projects/Pages/default.aspx

Department of the Environment 2014, CFI Methodologies, viewed 28 February 2014, http://www.climatechange.gov.au/reducing-carbon/carbon-farming-initiative/methodologies

California Air Resources Board 2014, ARB Offset Credits Issued: www.arb.ca.gov/cc/capandtrade/offsets/issuance/arb_offset_credit_issuance_table.pdf, viewed on 8 March 2014.

Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal (IPART) 2012, Compliance and Operation of the NSW Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scheme during 2012, New South Wales.

Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal (IPART) 2013, Compliance and Operation of the NSW Greenhouse Energy Savings Scheme during 2012, New South Wales.

Wara, M 2006, Measuring the Clean Development Mechanism’s Performance and Potential, Working Paper # 56, Program on Energy and Sustainable Development, Stanford California.

4. Additionality

Administrative Appeals of Tribunal Australia 2014, Charles IFE Pty Ltd and Domestic Offsets Integrity Committee [2014] AATA 33.

Alberta Government 2013, Technical Guidance for Offset Project Developers, version 4, Specified Gas Emitters Regulation, Alberta.

Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative Bill) 2011, Explanatory Memorandum, (Cth).

ClimateWorks 2013, Tracking Progress Towards a Low Carbon Economy – Special Report, ClimateWorks, Melbourne.

Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry (DAFF) ABARES 2012, the Carbon Farming Initiative - a proposed common practice framework for assessing additionality, Technical Report 12.2, 2012.

Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE) 2012a, The Positive list Carbon Farming Initiative, viewed 10 February 2014, www.climatechange.gov.au/sites/climatechange/files/files/reducing-carbon/cfi/cfi-positive-list-brochure.pdf

DCCEE 2012b, The Carbon Farming Initiative Handbook, Canberra.

Department of the Environment (DoE) 2014a, Activities not approved for the positive list, Viewed 11 February 2014, www.climatechange.gov.au/reducing-carbon/carbon-farming-initiative/activities-eligible-and-excluded/positive-list/activities-not-approved-positive-list.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 2004, Methodological tool: Tool for the demonstration and assessment of additionality, Version 07.0.0, viewed 26 February 2014, http://cdm.unfccc.int/methodologies/PAmethodologies/tools/am-tool-01-v7.0.0.pdf

5. Baseline setting

Alberta Environment 2012, Quantification Protocol for Solution Gas Conservation, Version 1.0, Specified Gas Emitters Regulation, Alberta.

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Executive Board 2010, Manufacturing of energy efficient domestic refrigerators, Approved baseline and monitoring methodology AM0070, Version 3.1.0.

CDM Executive Board 2011, Co-firing of biomass residues for heat generation and/or electricity generation in grid connected power plants, Approved consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology ACM0020, Version 1.0.0.

CDM Executive Board 2011b, Methodology for improved electrical energy efficiency of an existing submerged electric arc furnace used for the production of silicon and ferry alloys, Approved baseline and monitoring methodology AM0038, Version 03.0.0.

CDM Executive Board 2012, Capture and utilisation or destruction of mine methane (excluding coal mines) or non-mine methane 2012, Approved baseline and monitoring methodology AM0064, Version 03.0.0.

CDM Executive Board 2012b, Introduction of low-emission vehicles/technologies to commercial vehicle fleets, AMS-III.S. Version 04.0.

CDM Executive Board 2012c, Methane recovery in agricultural activities at household/small farm level, AMS-III.R, Version 03.0.

Department of the Environment (DoE) 2014b, Methodology Determinations, viewed 13 February 2014, www.climatechange.gov.au/reducing-carbon/carbon-farming-initiative/methodologies/methodology-determinations

DoE 2013, Guide for submitting Methodologies, viewed 13 February 2014, www.climatechange.gov.au/reducing-carbon/carbon-farming-initiative/methodologies/guidelines-submitting-methodologies

Energy Savings Scheme (ESS) 2014, website, viewed 4 March 2014, www.ess.nsw.gov.au/

Greenhouse Gas Benchmark Rule (Carbon Sequestration) No. 5 of 2003 (NSW).

Ministry of Power 2012, ‘Energy Conservation Rules’, Gazette of India, Extraordinary, Part II, Section 3, Sub-section (i), New Delhi, 30 March.

Partnership for Market Readiness (PMR) 2012, PMR Technical Note 1: Crediting mechanisms overview, PMR Technical Note 1 (1 December 2012), Germany.

PMR 2012b, PMR Technical Note 3: The nuts and bolts of baseline setting: why, what, and how?, PMR Technical Note 3 (16 August 2012), Prepared by Derik Broekhoff for the PMR Secretariat, Germany.

PMR 2013 Draft Technical Note 5: Options and guidance for the development of baselines, Technical Note 5 (October 2013), Prepared by Derik Broekhoff and Michael Lazarus for the PMR Secretariat, Germany.

Prag, A & Briner, G 2012, Crossing the Threshold: Ambitious Baselines for the UNFCCC New Market Mechanism, OECD/IEA Project for the Climate Change Expert Group on the UNFCCC.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Clean Development Mechanism website, viewed 4 March 2014, http://cdm.unfccc.int/

UNFCCCb, Clean Development Mechanism Rulebook website, viewed 4 March 2014, http://cdmrulebook.org/

Appendix A

Carbon Farming Initiative

Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry ABARES 2012, The Carbon Farming Initiative - a proposed common practice framework for assessing additionality, Technical Report 12.2.

Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency 2012a, The Positive list Carbon Farming Initiative, viewed 10 February 2014, www.climatechange.gov.au/sites/climatechange/files/files/reducing-carbon/cfi/cfi-positive-list-brochure.pdf

Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency 2012b, The Carbon Farming Initiative Handbook, Canberra.

Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency 2013, Carbon Farming Initiative Guidelines for Submitting Methodologies, viewed 13 February 2014, www.climatechange.gov.au/reducing-carbon/carbon-farming-initiative/methodologies/guidelines-submitting-methodologies

Department of the Environment 2014a, Activities not approved for the positive list, viewed 11 February 2014, www.climatechange.gov.au/reducing-carbon/carbon-farming-initiative/activities-eligible-and-excluded/positive-list/activities-not-approved-positive-list

Department of the Environment 2014b, Methodology Determinations, viewed 13 February 2014, www.climatechange.gov.au/reducingcarbon/carbonfarminginitiative/methodologies/methodology-determinations

New South Wales Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scheme

Electricity Supply Amendment (Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction) Act 2002 (NSW).

Electricity Supply Amendment (Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction) Regulation 2002 (NSW).

Electricity (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) Act 2004 (ACT).

Electricity (Greenhouse Gas Emissions) Regulation 2004 (ACT).

Greenhouse Gas Benchmark Rule (Compliance) No.1 of 2003 (NSW).

Greenhouse Gas Benchmark Rule (Generation) No. 2 of 2003 (NSW).

Greenhouse Gas Benchmark Rule (Demand Side Abatement) No. 3 of 2003 (1 July 2009) (NSW).

Greenhouse Gas Benchmark Rule (Large User Abatement Certificates) No. 4 of 2003 (NSW).

Greenhouse Gas Benchmark Rule (Carbon Sequestration) No. 5 of 2003 (NSW).

Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scheme 2014, website, viewed 26 February 2014, www.greenhousegas.nsw.gov.au/

Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal (IPART) 2012, Compliance and Operation of the NSW Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scheme during 2012: Report to Minister, New South Wales.

IPART 2013, NSW Greenhouse Reduction Scheme: Strengths, weaknesses and lessons learned, New South Wales.

New South Wales (NSW) Government 2011, Introduction to GGAS, New South Wales.

New South Wales Energy Saving Scheme

Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal (IPART) 2013, Guide to Completing the Annual Energy Saving Statement, New South Wales.

Energy Savings Scheme (ESS) 2014, website, viewed 4 March 2014, www.ess.nsw.gov.au/Home

New South Wales (NSW) Government 2009, Preparing for the Energy Savings Scheme, New South Wales.

NSW Government 2011, ‘Energy Savings Scheme Rule of 2009’, Special Supplement, Government Gazette, No. 131, New South Wales.

Electricity Supply (General) Regulation 2001 (NSW).

The Clean Development Mechanism

International Emissions Trading Association (IETA) 2009, Multi-Project, Standardized Baselines and Beyond: Explaining a key issue in the reform of the Clean Development Mechanism, IETA Climate Challenges, Market Solutions, Geneva, Switzerland.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 2004, Methodological tool: Tool for the demonstration and assessment of additionality, Version 07.0.0, viewed 26 February 2014, http://cdm.unfccc.int/methodologies/PAmethodologies/tools/am-tool-01-v7.0.0.pdf

UNFCCC 2011, Annex 6: Guidelines on the Consideration of Suppressed Demand in CDM Methodologies, viewed 26 February 2014, http://cdm.unfccc.int/filestorage/9/D/8/9D86VZY2RQTNUGOW7EKSCA4MHFLI05/eb62_repan06.pdf?t=S298bjFuMTVzfDBGwIEHOYhT-D_B8O8nGkrx

UNFCCC 2011b Annex 8: Guideline for the Establishment of Sector Specific Standardized Baselines, Version 1.0, viewed 26 February 2014, http://cdm.unfccc.int/filestorage/4/I/Y/4IY1RB7DMKLWPGF59XC3UE6JNH8Q2A/eb62_repan08.pdf?t=Vnh8bjFuMWJ2fDDZTLGL3joCY10DJZbp0sbY

UNFCCC 2012, Annex 27 Guidelines on the Demonstration of Additionality of Small-Scale Project Activities, Version 09.0.

UNFCCC 2012b, Methodological tool: Combined tool to identify the baseline scenario and demonstrate additionality, Version 05.0.0.

UNFCCC 2013, CDM Methodology Booklet, Fifth Edition, Bonn, Germany.

UNFCCC 2014, Clean Development Mechanism website, viewed 4 March 2014, http://cdm.unfccc.int/

UNFCCC 2014b, Clean Development Mechanism Rulebook website, viewed 4 March 2014, http://cdmrulebook.org/

China’s Certified Emissions Reduction Scheme

Carbon Market Watch 2013, Scrutinising Carbon Markets, Newsletter, Issue 3, May 2013, Brussels

ClimateBridge 2013, Bridge to China’s Carbon Market, Issue 3, June 2013, China.

ClimateBridge 2013b, Bridge to China’s Carbon Market, Issue 5, October 2013, China.

The Climate Group 2012, The Interim Regulation of Voluntary Greenhouse Gases Emission Trading in China, Translated government document, July 2012, viewed 3 March 2014, http://thecleanrevolution.org/_assets/files/Interim-Regulation-of-Voluntary-Greenhouse-Gases-Emission-Trading-in-China%281%29.pdf

The National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) 2013, China’s Policies and Actions for Addressing Climate Change, The People’s Republic of China, Beijing.

NDRC 2014, website, viewed 4 March 2014, http://203.207.195.145:92/sdxm.aspx?clmId=163&page=0

Yin, D 2013, ‘China’s Carbon Emissions Traders Await Offset Demand’, Ecosystems Marketplace, viewed 3 March 2014, www.ecosystemmarketplace.com/pages/dynamic/article.page.php?page_id=9820

India’s Perform Achieve Trade

Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF) 2013 India – energy efficiency – research note, 20 April.

Bureau of Energy Efficiency 2012, PAT: Perform, Achieve and Trade, Ministry of Power, Government of India.

Climate and Development Knowledge Index 2013, Creating market support for energy efficiency: India’s Perform Achieve and Trade scheme, World Resources Institute, United Kingdom.

Khan, M, Tanwar, N, Shankar, S & Climate Connect 2011, Primer to India’s Perform, Achieve and Trade Scheme for Enhanced Energy Efficiency, in Greenhouse Gas Market Report 2011: Asia Pacific Market On The Rise, IETA, Geneva.

Ministry of Power 2012, ‘Energy Conservation Rules’, Gazette of India, Extraordinary, Part II, Section 3, Sub-section (i), New Delhi, 30 March.

Regan, K & Mehta, N 2012, International finance and the PAT scheme, Verco Global, viewed 6 January 2014, www.vercoglobal.com/images/uploads/insightsreports/International_finance_and_the_PAT_scheme.pdf

Alberta’s Specified Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scheme

Auditor General Alberta 2011, ‘Climate Change and Emissions Management Fund - Use of Offsets - Follow-up Audit’, in Report of the Auditor General of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.

Alberta Government 2012, Technical Guidance for Completing Specified Gas Baseline Emission Intensity Applications, Version 4, Specified Gas Emitters Regulation, Alberta.

Alberta Government 2013, Technical Guidance for Offset Project Developers, Version 4, Specified Gas Emitters Regulation, Alberta.

Alberta Government 2013b, 2013 Large Final Emitter Update, Presentation for Air and Climate Change Policy Branch Environment and Sustainable Resource Development, viewed 3 March 2014, http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/library/8735.pdf

Environment and Sustainable Resource Development, Alberta-based Offset Credit System Website, viewed 4 March 2014, http://environment.alberta.ca/0923.html

International Institute for Sustainable Development 2011, Regulating Carbon Emissions in Canada Offsets and Canada’s GHG Regulations: Reducing costs, improving competitiveness and lowering emissions, Policy Brief for the Industry Provincial Offsets Group (IPOG), IISD’s Climate Change and Energy Program, Manitoba, Canada.

Specified Gas Emitters Regulation 2007, Alberta Regulation 139/2007, Alberta, Canada.

California’s Air Resources Board Compliance Offsets Scheme

ARB Offset Credit Issuance, viewed 3 March 2014, www.arb.ca.gov/cc/capandtrade/offsets/issuance/issuance.htm

Article 5: California Cap On Greenhouse Gas Emissions And Market-Based Compliance Mechanisms, Subchapter 10 Climate Change, Article 5, Sections 95800 to 96023, Title 17, California Code of Regulations, California.

California Air Resources Board (ARB) 2011, Compliance Offset Protocol Ozone Depleting Substances Projects: Destruction of U.S. ozone depleting substances banks, 20 October, California.

California ARB 2011b, Compliance Offset Protocol Livestock Projects: Capturing and destroying methane from manure management systems, 20 October, California.

California ARB 2011c, Compliance Offset Protocol Urban Forest Projects, 20 October, California.

California ARB 2011d, Compliance Offset Protocol U.S. Forest Projects, 20 October, California.

California ARB 2012, ‘Chapter 1: How Does The Cap-And-Trade Program Work?’, Cap-and-Trade Regulation Instructional Guidance, California Code of Regulations.

California ARB 2012b, ‘Chapter 6: What Are The Requirements For Offset Credits And How Are They Issued?’, Cap-and-Trade Regulation Instructional Guidance, California Code of Regulations.

California ARB 2013, Proposed Amendments to the California Cap On Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Market-Based Compliance Mechanisms, Staff Report: Initial Statement of Reasons, Public hearing to consider proposed amendments to the California cap-and-trade program, California.

California ARB 2014, Compliance Offset Program website, viewed 4 March 2014, www.arb.ca.gov/cc/capandtrade/offsets/offsets.htm

Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (California).

Appendix B

Climate Change Authority 2014, Targets and Progress Review, Melbourne.

Treasury and Department of Industry, Innovation, Climate Change, Science, Research and Tertiary Education (DIICCSRTE) 2013, Climate Change Mitigation Scenarios, modelling report to the Climate Change Authority in support of its Caps and Targets Review, Canberra.